Perennial herb; main root fleshy, cylindrical or spindle-shaped, fibrous root slender; rhizome (reed head) short, with stem scars (reed bowl) and buds; stem solitary, erect, 40-60 cm high. The leaves are palmately compound, with 2-6 whorls on the top of the stem, depending on age: 3 leaflets in 1 year, 1-2 5 leaflets in 2 years, 2-3 leaves in 3 years, 3-4 leaves in 4 years , more than 5 years old, 4-5 pieces, the most 6 pieces; leaflets 3-5, the middle one is the largest, ovate or elliptic, 3-12 cm long, 1-4 cm wide, cuneate at the base, acuminate at the apex, Edges have fine serrations, above are sparsely setae along the midrib. Umbels terminal, flowers small; flowers bell-shaped, with 5 teeth; petals 5, light yellow-green; Stamens 5, filaments short, anthers spherical; ovary inferior, 2-loculed, style 1, stigma 2-lobed. Berry-like drupe oblate or kidney-shaped, bright red when ripe; 2 seeds, oblate, yellow-white.
According to historical records, the lifespan of ginseng is about 400 years, but in harvesting, it is very rare for ginseng to reach 200 years old, and it is not easy to grow for about a hundred years. the
It mostly grows between 40-45 degrees north latitude, with an average temperature of -23-5°C in January and 20-26°C in July. It has strong cold resistance and can withstand low temperatures of -40°C. The suitable growth temperature is 15-25°C. 2000~3000℃, frost-free period 125~150 days, snow accumulation 20~44 cm, annual precipitation 500~1000 mm. The soil is well-drained, loose, fertile, brown forest soil with deep humus layer or grayed brown forest soil in mountainous areas, with a pH value of 5.5~6.2. It mostly grows in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests dominated by Korean pine or under deciduous broad-leaved forests, with a canopy density of 0.7~0.8. Ginseng usually blooms in 3 years and bears fruit in 5 to 6 years. The flowering period is from May to June, and the fruiting period is from June to September.
Geographical distribution: Jilin, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Hebei (Wuling Mountain, Dushan), Shanxi, Hubei. the
Biological characteristics Like cold and humid climates, feathers are exposed to strong light, and they are strong in cold weather. The seeds can be stored in the shade, and the embryos have morphological and physiological post-ripening characteristics; the former requires a temperature change of 20-10°C, and the latter requires a low temperature of 2-4°C, each takes 3-4 months, and there are no mature seeds Cannot germinate. Strict requirements on the soil, should be cultivated in sandy loam and humus loam rich in organic matter and good permeability, avoid continuous cropping.
Cultivation techniques are mainly propagated by seeds. For germination, mix 1 part of seeds with 3 parts of river sand, put them in a germination box, and place them indoors or outdoors in a suitable place for germination. Pay attention to frequent checks for overturning, and control the temperature and temperature for sowing. Jilin Fusong is usually sown in late June Dried seeds (dried and stored seeds collected in the previous year), Ji'an and other places sow undried seeds that were harvested in early August, and germinated seeds can also be sown in spring and autumn. Sow on demand with 5cm×(4-5)cn, cover with soil 3-4cm. Transplant, plant in spring or autumn. Spring planting should be done in mid-to-late April, before the overwintering buds germinate; autumn planting should be done in mid-to-late October, before the soil freezes. As it rises, as it is planted, it is generally planted according to the row spacing (15-30) × (6-12) cm, planted flat or obliquely, and covered with 5-9 cm of soil. Sheds can be divided into full-shade sheds, transparent sheds, single-transparent sheds or double-transparent sheds, which can be selected according to climate, soil quality and terrain conditions.