medicinal plant cultivation
1. Climate and soil: It likes a warm, humid and sunny climate. It is suitable for well-drained, fertile sandy loam, lime-calcium soil or red sandy loam with acidic reaction (pH4.5-5.5).
2. Soil preparation: After plowing the crushed soil, make a furrow with a width of 1m and a height of 15-20cm. Drainage ditches should be opened around.
3. Planting: Generally, the seedling transplanting method is used, and the seeds are harvested and planted after they are mature, or mixed with wet sand, but not more than 20 days, and the germination will be lost after the expiration. Use the drill method, the row spacing is about 15cm, the furrow depth is 3-4cm, sow 1 seed every 3-4cm, cover with soil, water, and cover with hay after sowing. When the seedling height is 10cm, one seedling is reserved for every 6cm. Three years later, when the height of the seedlings is about 1m, choose the rainy days in February to March for planting, and the distance between rows and plants is about 2×3m.
4. Field management: germinate 20-40 days after sowing. At this time, weeds should be removed, shade sheds should be erected to prevent sun exposure, and watering should be paid attention to frequently to keep the soil moist and prevent drought. When the seedling height is 16-20cm, remove the shade shed and pay attention to irrigation and fertilization. After afforestation, weeding, pine, and fertilization must be done 3 times a year.
5. Prevention and control of diseases and insect pests: Pests include the larvae of the longhorn beetle. When found, the damaged parts can be cut off and burned, and then hunted or fumigated with sulfur vapor.
1. Pick out the impurities, scrape off the rough skin, and break it when used;
2. Or scrape off the rough skin, soak in warm water for a while, slice and dry.
3. Crush and grind, and the finished product is called cinnamon powder. the
harvesting and storage
When the tree is more than 10 years old and the phloem has accumulated into an oil layer, it can be peeled off. It can be peeled off in spring and autumn, and the quality of peeled off in August-September in autumn is the best. The ring peeling is slightly longer according to the length of the product specification (41cm), peel off the cinnamon bark, and then cut into strips according to the width of the specification (8-12cm). Strip production is too peeled, that is, draw a line on the tree according to the length and width of the product specification, peel off the tree one by one, and process it with the method of stewing oil in the ground pit or the method of thinly stewing the basket. The one peeled in April to May is called Chungui, which is of poor quality, and the one peeled in September is called Qiugui, which is of good quality. After the bark is dried, it is called cassia bark, and the processed products include Guitong, Bangui, Qibiangui and Yougui. the
Raw material identification
1. Character identification
(1) The cinnamon "Qibiangui" is in the shape of shallow grooves on both sides, with both ends beveled; "Youtonggui" is mostly in the shape of a roll, 30-50cm long, 3-10cm wide or 3-10cm in diameter, thick 2-8mm. The outer surface is grayish-brown, slightly rough, with many micro-protruding lenticels and a few transverse cracks, and gray lichen plaques; the inner surface is brownish-red, smooth, with fine longitudinal lines, and oily marks on nails. The texture is firm and brittle, the fracture surface is granular, the outer layer is brown, the inner layer is reddish brown and oily, and there is a light yellow tangential line (stone cell ring) near the outer layer. The aroma is strong and specific, sweet and spicy.
Imported cinnamon: It is in the shape of a tube with both sides curled inward, with a slightly concave groove in the center, and both ends are obliquely peeled off. The length is 40-50cm, the width is 6-8cm, and the thickness is 6-7mm. The outer surface is slightly rough, wrinkled, with off-white and yellow-brown plaques, and round or semicircular lenticels are common; the inner surface is brown to tan, smooth with fine longitudinal lines, and oil marks are evident on nail scratches. Has a special aroma, sweet, slightly pungent.
Imported low mountain cinnamon: the outer surface is rough, and the inner skin is slightly rough. The skin is thin and the body is lighter, with light yellow lines on the cross-section. It contains less volatile oil, poor aroma, light sweetness and strong spicy taste.
Imported alpine cinnamon: the outer surface is fine, and the inner surface is fine and smooth. The skin is thick and the body is heavy, the cross-section is light yellow, and the lines are not obvious. It contains high volatile oil, strong aroma, strong sweetness and light spicy taste.
The outer surface is delicate, the skin is thick and heavy, not broken, oily, fragrant, sweet and slightly pungent, and less chewing residue is better.
(2) Nanyu Gui The medicinal properties are similar to cinnamon, and it has a special fragrance when chewed, and it melts into slag. Generally considered to be of better quality.
2. Microscopic identification Bark cross-section: (1) Cinnamon wood whole cell array, the outer wall of the innermost cell is thickened and lignified. The cortex is thicker, scattered with stone cells, oil cells and mucus cells. In the pericycle, there are stone cell groups arranged in a nearly continuous ring layer, with fiber bundles on the outside, and the outer wall of stone cells is thin. The phloem accounts for about 1/2 of the bark, the ray width is 1-2 rows of cells, containing fine calcium oxalate needle crystals; the fibers are often scattered in single balance or 2-3 bundles; oil cells can be seen everywhere, compared with phloem parenchyma cells Slightly larger; with mucous cells. The parenchyma cells of this product contain starch granules.
(2) The difference between Nanyugui and cinnamon in organization is that the cortical stone cells are slightly less, and the stone cell band in the pericycle is narrower, usually 2-10 rows are intermittently arranged in a ring. The tellith cells are sparsely scattered on the upper phloem bundle, and the diameter of bast fibers is 16-36μm.
3. Powder characteristics: reddish brown. ① Most of the fibers are scattered individually, long fusiform, wavy or concave-convex, 195-680 μm long, 24-50 μm in diameter, extremely thick, with inconspicuous pore grooves. ②Stone cells are square or round, with a diameter of 32-88μm and a thick wall. Some of them are thin on one side, and a few contain needle crystals. ③Oil cells are round or oblong, with a diameter of 68-108 μm, containing light yellow oil droplets. ④ Calcium oxalate needle crystals are relatively small, up to 43 μm in length, scattered in bundles or scattered, especially in ray cells; there are also rectangular sheet-like crystals, up to 6 μm in width. ⑤ The surface of the whole wood cell is polygonal, the wall is slightly thicker, with pits, and some are thinner on one side, often containing reddish-brown substances. In addition, there are reddish-brown parenchyma cells and starch grains.