1. Selection of cultivation season
Biologically, ginger is a vegetable crop that loves temperature and is not cold-resistant and frost-resistant. Therefore, when ginger is cultivated, it is necessary to avoid frosting as much as possible. The growth and production process is suitable for warm seasons.
Due to the characteristics of ginger that likes temperature and is not cold-resistant, it is said that the sowing period is gradually delayed from the south to the north of the country. The subtropical climate like Hainan has no frost period in a year, so the whole spring is suitable for sowing. If it is near the watershed, it is generally sown from Guyu to Lixia, while in North China, it is mostly sown from Lixia to Xiaoman.
2. Select ginger and cultivate strong buds
Seed selection. The ginger used for ginger seedlings should be selected from the high-yield plots that grow vigorously, are disease-free and have the characteristics of this variety in the first year. After harvesting, choose ginger pieces that are fat, full of buds, uniform in size, bright in color, and free from disease and pest scars for storage. In frost-free southern China, it can be selected after digging out of the ground before sowing.
Strong buds Cultivating strong buds is the primary production link to obtain a high yield of ginger. Judging from its shape, the strong buds have a thick bud body and a blunt top, while the weak buds have a slender bud body and a thin tip. The strength of ginger seed buds is related to the nutritional status of the ginger, the location of the seed buds, and the germination temperature and humidity.
②Nutrition status of ginger
As the saying goes, "mother is strong and son is fat". Under normal circumstances, those who grow fat and bright ginger, because of their good nutritional status, the new shoots are more fat; while the ginger grows thin and shriveled, its nutrition is poor, and most of the new shoots are thin.
③The location of the seed bud
Due to the dominance of the apex, most of the upper buds and outer buds of ginger are fat, while the base buds and inner buds are often thin.
④ germination temperature and humidity
Germinate at a suitable temperature of 22°C~25°C, and the new sprouts will be strong. If the germination temperature is too high, and it is above 28°C for a long time, the new sprouts will be thin and slender. During the germination period, the humidity is too low (mainly due to excessive drying of the ginger, which causes excessive water loss of the ginger), and the seed buds are often thin.
3. Soil preparation and furrowing
Ginger plots should not be used for continuous cropping. They should be cultivated in sandy loam, loam or clay loam that contains more organic matter and is easy to irrigate and drain. Among them, sandy loam is the best, and the requirements for soil pH are slightly acidic to neutral and alkaline. The soil is not suitable for cultivation. The soil requires deep plowing of 20 to 30 cm, repeated plowing, and full sunning. Then rake fine furrows.
It should be carried out in sunny and warm weather. Before sowing, break the large ginger pieces that have been germinated into small seed pieces weighing 70-80 grams, and select 1-2 fat young shoots for each seed piece, and remove the remaining shoots so that the nutrients can be concentrated and supplied to the main plant. Buds ensure that the seedlings are strong and vigorous. The process of pruning ginger is actually block selection and bud selection. If the weather is dry during planting, it is necessary to water the planting ditch one day in advance, and plant after the water seeps down. When planting ginger, put them in the planting ditch one by one at a distance of about 20 cm. The ginger buds are all facing south, and the bud heads are pushed down slightly so that the ginger pieces are slightly inclined to the south, so that the ginger can be harvested in the future. Immediately cover the thin ± 4 ~ 5 cm. The planting density is generally 4000~5000 plants per mu in southern my country, and the amount of seeds used is about 300 kg.
5. Field management, topdressing in stages
Ginger is extremely resistant to fertilizers, except for the use of enough fertilizers.
The first time the seedlings emerge, when the height of the seedlings is about 30 cm, use 500 kg of decomposed manure per mu, add water 5~6 times, or use 10 kg of urea to make 0.5%~1% dilute fertilizer 15-20 kg of ammonium sulfate can also be applied for pouring, and 1000 kg of decomposed human feces can be washed with water when conditions permit.
The second topdressing is carried out after harvesting the ginger, which is called urging seed fertilizer. The amount of fertilizer applied is 30% to 50% higher than that of the first time. There is already a lot of rain when applying, and holes can be opened 10 to 12 cm away from the plants, and fertilizers can be applied to cover the soil. If the base fertilizer in the ginger field is sufficient, the plants grow vigorously, and there is no defertilization phenomenon, you can not apply or apply less topdressing fertilizer this time, so as not to cause the plants to grow excessively.
The third topdressing is carried out immediately after removing the shade shed or shade in the ginger field when the weather turns cold in early autumn to promote the branching and expansion of ginger. It can be combined with the removal of ginger grass for appropriate reapplication. It is called transition fertilizer and requires long-lasting fertilizer. Combination of complete fertilizer and quick-acting chemical fertilizer, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium combined application, generally 20-25 kg of urea per mu, 20-25 kg of potassium sulfate, 10-15 kg of superphosphate or 20 kg of compound fertilizer, evenly spread the planting rows on, and combined with soil.
During the vigorous growth period of rhizomes in early and mid-September, in order to promote the rapid expansion of ginger and prevent premature aging, one supplementary fertilizer should be given priority to with quick-acting chemical fertilizers, and 30 kg of compound fertilizer should be applied per mu.
6. Cultivation and soil cultivation
During the growth period of ginger, weeding and soil cultivation should be carried out several times. In the early stage, shallow hoeing was carried out every 10 to 15 days, mostly after rain, to maintain soil moisture and prevent hardening. When the plant height is 40-50 cm, start to cultivate the soil, and cultivate the soil between the rows to the planting ditch. In the watershed and its south areas, it is rainy in summer, and the furrows should be dug to a depth of 30 cm in combination with soil cultivation, and the excavated soil should be evenly placed between the rows
7. Irrigation and drainage
Keep the soil dry after planting to facilitate the recovery of soil temperature. However, if there is no rain for a long time, it will affect the emergence of seedlings, and it should be watered appropriately. After emergence, keep the furrow surface dry and wet, and it is not advisable to water more. When the rainy season comes, it is necessary to clear the ditch and drain water in time to lower the groundwater level so that the roots will not be waterlogged and rotted.