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Medicinal effects of ginseng


Anti-shock effect


Ginseng can reduce the anaphylactic shock induced by guinea pig serum and prolong its survival time. For mice with scald shock, it can significantly delay their death. For dogs in the dying state of hemorrhagic and suffocating, it can promote the recovery of normal life activities. For animals with hemorrhagic acute circulatory failure, ginseng can significantly increase heartbeat amplitude and heart rate. In heart failure, the cardiotonic effect is more significant. Pre-administration of ginseng fruit saponins can significantly prolong the survival time of dogs with hemorrhagic shock, prevent damage to the sarcolemma, nuclear membrane and mitochondria of myocardial cells in hemorrhagic shock, and protect the heart, brain, kidney and liver of shock animals. Ginseng fruit saponins and ginseng reed saponins also protect the heart, liver and lungs from hemorrhagic shock. Ginseng extract (red ginseng, sugar ginseng, 20% ethanol percolation, 1:1 concentration) has anti-insulin shock effect, while ginseng total saponins can promote insulin shock effect. Shenmai injection (ginseng, Ophiopogon japonicus) has good effects in treating experimental endotoxic shock in mice and rats, reducing diarrhea and fever symptoms, and improving peripheral blood and reticuloendothelial system functions. It is suggested that it is a good activator of reticuloendothelial system function.


Effects on the liver


Ginseng can increase the enzyme activity of the liver to metabolize various substances, enhance the detoxification ability of the liver, thereby enhancing the body's tolerance to various chemical substances. Experiments show that ginseng can increase the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver, shorten the anesthesia time of rabbits and dogs by ethanol, and reduce the ethanol level in blood of rabbits quickly. It has been reported that ginseng can not only enhance the detoxification function of the liver, but also have the effect of resisting liver damage. Ginseng fruit saponins can alleviate liver injury transaminase hyperemia caused by carbon tetrachloride. It has also been reported that ginsenosides can reduce the increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in rabbits caused by carbon tetrachloride, and can also alleviate the changes in rabbit liver tissue caused by other poisons, such as thioacetamide. The results of studies on the anti-hepatotoxic effects of ginsenosides and certain structure-efficacy relationships found that red ginseng is likely to have stronger anti-hepatotoxic activity than white ginseng.


The detoxification effect of ginseng on ethanol is very obvious. It can not only shorten the duration of ethanol anesthesia and speed up the time to return to normal, but also reduce the contents of GOT, GPT, ALP and bilirubin in serum, and increase the metabolism related to ethanol. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, while the toxic substance acetaldehyde produced by ethanol metabolism is rapidly excreted, and because excess hydrogen participates in the synthesis of saponins, it can effectively protect the liver of alcohol poisoning.



anti-aging effect


Experiments have proved that ginseng has the function of delaying cell aging and prolonging cell life. Feeding bees with ginseng flowers can significantly prolong life by about 10 to 15 days. Red ginseng can significantly promote the synthesis of RNA in liver cells, and its effect is directly proportional to the dose. Experiments have found that red ginseng injection can activate hyperplasia, enhance metabolic function, and increase DNA replication rate.


The main component of ginseng to adjust the aging process and prevent premature aging is ginsenoside. Its main function is to stimulate the physiological system with low function, make its physiological and biochemical reactions tend to normal, and prevent the vicious circle caused by various reasons to achieve the purpose of prolonging life. The antioxidant effect of ginseng is one of the important links of ginseng's anti-aging effect. Ginsenosides, ginseng stem and leaf saponins and ginseng polysaccharides can inhibit lipid peroxidation in animal liver, brain, lung and other tissues induced by various factors, and eliminate anion free radicals. Ginsenosides and panaxadiol can eliminate superoxide ion free radicals produced by dimethyl sulfoxide under aerobic conditions in vitro, and the effect of panaxadiol is stronger than that of panaxadiol. Ginsenosides can significantly inhibit lipid peroxidation in mouse brain and liver tissue, increase the content of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in red blood cells, and significantly inhibit the production of lipofuscin in rat cerebral cortex and liver effect. Ginseng stems and leaves and reed saponin can significantly inhibit liver homogenate and serum lipid peroxidation in middle-aged and aged rats. And the same effect was obtained in the experiment of aged mice.


Ginsenosides can significantly increase the cAMP level of yang-deficiency animals, reduce the cGMP level, increase the ratio of cAMP/cGMP, and effectively increase the number of Kupffer cells in the liver of yang-deficiency animals. Ginseng stem and leaf saponins have the effect of improving neuroendocrine integration function. Ginseng stem and leaf saponins also have the effect of increasing the secretion of prolactin in rats with kidney yang deficiency. This result supports the view that aging is a physiological state of kidney yang deficiency.

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