1. Site selection and site preparation: It is advisable to choose a gentle slope with a slope of 5-15 degrees and good drainage, humus soil or sandy loam rich in organic matter. It is advisable to use corn, peanuts or beans as the fore-crop in the farmland, and avoid Solanaceae as the fore-crop. After the land is selected, it should be left to rest for one to half a year, and plowed several times to a depth of 15 to 20 cm to promote the weathering of the soil. Where conditions permit, it is possible to spread grass and burn soil or apply 100 kg of lime per mu to disinfect the soil before digging. For the last plowing, apply 5,000 kg of fully decomposed manure per mu, 50 kg of cake fertilizer, level and finely till the furrows, facing south, with a width of 1.2-1.5 meters and a distance of 50-150 cm. The length of the furrows depends on the terrain. , The furrow height is 30-40 cm, and the furrow is blocked with bamboo poles or wooden sticks to prevent the furrow from collapsing, and the furrow surface is in the shape of a tile back.
2. Propagation method: Propagate by seeds.
(1) Seed selection treatment: From November to November every year, select the full-shade mature red fruits of 3-4 year old plants, pick them off, put them into a bamboo sieve, rub off the peel, wash, and dry the surface water. Soak seeds with 65% Zinc 400 times or 50% thiophanate 1000 times for 10 minutes for disinfection. Panax notoginseng seeds are easy to lose vitality after drying, so they should be harvested and sown or preserved by stratification.
(2) Sowing: Use a tool to mark the printed row, sow on-demand with a row spacing of 6 cm × 5 cm, and then evenly spread a layer of mixed fertilizer (mixed with decomposed farmyard manure or other fertilizers), and cover a layer of straw on the furrow to keep To keep the border moist and inhibit the growth of weeds, 70,000-100,000 grains are used per acre, equivalent to 10-12 kg of fruit.
For example, after sowing and watering, the method of covering with silver-gray plastic film can significantly increase production and have good water retention and fertilizer saving effects.
(3) Seedling management and transplanting: When the weather is dry, it should be watered frequently, and the accumulated water should be drained in time after the rain, and the weeds should be weeded regularly. Topdressing at the seedling stage is generally dominated by phosphorus fertilizers, usually three times, the first time in March after the seedlings have emerged, and the last two times in May and July respectively. The light transmittance of the canopy at the seedling stage should be adjusted according to the light intensity changes in different seasons. Panax notoginseng seedlings are transplanted one year later, usually from December to January of the next year. It is required to raise seedlings, select seedlings, and transplant. When rooting, be careful not to damage the roots and buds. When selecting seedlings, diseased, injured, and weak seedlings should be eliminated and cultivated in different grades. Radix Notoginseng seedlings are graded according to the size and weight of the roots: those with a thousand roots weighing more than 2 kg are grade one; those with a thousand roots weighing 1.5-2 kg are grade two; those with a thousand roots weighing less than 1.5 kg are grade three. Transplanting row spacing: the first and second grades are 18 cm × 15-18 cm; the third grade is 15 cm × 15 cm. Seedlings should be disinfected before planting. Dip the roots with 300 times more Zinc, remove and dry immediately after dipping and plant in time.
3. Field management
(1) Weeding and soil cultivation: Panax notoginseng is a shallow-rooted plant, and the roots are mostly distributed in the surface layer of 15 cm, so it is not suitable for intertillage, so as not to damage the root system. After the seedlings are unearthed, the weeds on the border surface should be removed in time. While weeding, if the rhizomes and roots are found to be exposed to the ground, the soil should be cultivated.
(2) Watering and drainage: In the dry season, water should be frequently sprayed to keep the border surface moist. When watering, it should be sprayed, and water should not be splashed, otherwise the plants will fall. During the rainy season, especially after heavy rain, it is necessary to remove accumulated water in time to prevent root rot and other diseases from occurring.
(3) Set up a shed and adjust light transmittance: Panax notoginseng likes shade, artificial cultivation needs to be shaded by a shed, the height of the grid is 1.5-1.8 meters, and side sheds are set up around the shed. Shed materials are made from local materials. Generally, wood or cement prefabricated row strips are used as shed columns, and iron wires are drawn on the top of the grid as beams, and then bamboo is woven into square grids to lay the roof of the shed. The amount of light in the shed has a close influence on the growth and development of Panax notoginseng. If there is too little light transmission, the plants will be thin and weak, prone to diseases and insect pests, and there will be few flowering and fruiting; if the light transmission is too high, the leaves will turn yellow and early wilting will easily occur. The luminosity is 60% to 70%, the light transmittance is slightly smaller in summer, 45% to 50%, and the temperature turns cooler in autumn, and the light transmittance gradually expands to 50% to 60%.
(4) Topdressing: Sanqi topdressing should grasp the principle of "multiple times and small amounts". Generally, after the seedlings germinate and emerge from the soil, plant ash is sprinkled 2-3 times, with 50-100 kg per mu, to promote the growth of the seedlings. From April to May, apply a mixed organic fertilizer (barn manure, plant ash 2:1), use 2000 kg per mu, and add 15 kg of superphosphate to the reserved plots to promote fruit fullness. After clearing the garden in winter, apply 2 000-3 000 kg of mixed fertilizer per mu.
(5) Shooting: In order to prevent unnecessary consumption of nutrients, concentrate on supplying underground roots for growth. When flowering shoots appear in July, remove all flowering shoots, which can increase the yield of Panax notoginseng. Throwing should be carried out on sunny days.