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Effects of Ginseng on Substance Metabolism


a. Effects on glucose metabolism: Experiments have shown that ginseng has inhibitory effects on normal blood sugar and hyperglycemia caused by injection of adrenaline and hypertonic glucose. For alloxan-induced diabetes in male rats, it has the effect of controlling blood sugar levels, but cannot prevent its morbidity and death. It is also effective for alloxan diabetes in mice. It has a certain inhibitory effect on dog experimental diabetic hyperglycemia, but it cannot completely correct its metabolic disorder. It has also been reported that different saponin monomers of ginseng can antagonize the effects of adrenaline, ACTH and glucagon and enhance the effect of insulin on glucose metabolism.

Experiments have shown that: ginseng extract, ginseng polysaccharides, ginseng polypeptides, ginseng stem and leaf polysaccharides, and non-saponin parts of ginseng all have hypoglycemic effects and can be used for the treatment of diabetes. Ginseng extract has the effect of lowering blood sugar level, reducing ketone body and promoting sugar absorption for alloxan diabetes. Ginseng polypeptide 30mg/kg and 60mg/kg intravenous injection to rabbits can significantly reduce blood sugar and liver glycogen content. Ginseng stem and leaf polysaccharides 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally or intravenously into mice, which could significantly resist the hypertension caused by adrenaline and alloxan. Ginseng polysaccharide 50mg/kg~200mg/kg was given to mice by intraperitoneal or subcutaneous injection to reduce blood sugar and liver glycogen content, and adrenalectomy did not affect its effect. Ginseng polypeptide 50mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 200mg/kg given to rats for one intravenous injection or mice for multiple subcutaneous administrations can reduce normal blood sugar and liver glycogen. At the same time, it can inhibit the hyperglycemia caused by adrenaline, alloxan and glucose, and can enhance the decomposition of hepatic glycogen by adrenaline.

Studies on the hypoglycemic mechanism of ginseng have found that the hypoglycemic effect of ginseng peptides is mainly due to the stimulation of the activity of succinate dehydrogenase and CCD to make the aerobic oxidation of sugar, in addition to promoting the decomposition of glycogen or inhibiting the synthesis of hepatic glycogen from lactic acid. For the sake of enhancement. Ginseng polysaccharides can also increase the content of pyruvate, and inhibit the activity of lactate dehydrogenase to reduce lactic acid. Ginseng polysaccharide can also enhance the activity of succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase. Ginseng can stimulate the free islets of mice to release insulin, and can significantly increase the amount of insulin synthesis. It has no obvious effect on the blood sugar, insulin, and glucagon levels of diabetic mice caused by streptozotocin. Ginsenosides can stimulate isolated rat islets to release insulin, and can promote glucose-induced insulin release.

Give normal people and diabetics 3-6g of red ginseng powder or saponins once a day, blood sugar tends to decrease; blood gastrin increases; corticosterone value decreases in diabetics but increases in normal people; catecholamines downward trend. Catecholamine can activate adenylate cyclase on the cell membrane, increase cAMP, and promote gluconeogenesis. Red ginseng can reduce the content of catecholamine, thereby limiting gluconeogenesis and leading to the regulation of glucose metabolism.

Ginseng has a two-way regulating effect on glucose metabolism, which can not only reduce the blood sugar of glucose-induced hyperglycemia, but also increase the blood sugar of insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

b. Effect on protein metabolism: Experiments have proved that ginseng and its saponins can promote the synthesis of RNA and protein in various tissues of the body; for tissues with active cell division such as bone marrow and testis, it can not only promote the synthesis of RNA and protein, but also can Promote the synthesis of DNA and the growth of nerve fibers. Ginseng can enhance protein synthesis in female rats; it can also correct the decrease of liver DNA in female rats due to starvation and promote protein synthesis. Ginseng stem and leaf saponins can increase RNA and protein synthesis in mouse liver and kidney tissues. It is reported that ginseng enhances the biosynthesis of RNA and protein, which seems to be realized through some intermediate links in the body, which may include substances such as estradiol, growth hormone, and testosterone.

c. Effects on lipid metabolism: Ginsenosides can promote lipid metabolism, promote the biosynthesis of cholesterol and blood lipoproteins in rats, but when animals have hypercholesterolemia, both ginseng and its saponins can reduce it. It has been proved that ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, Rg1, Rd and Re can make 14C-acetate penetrate into rat serum and liver, and the amount of cholesterol in serum is higher than that of the control group. It was recently found that after a high-fat diet, rats had high cholesterol content in liver and low 14C-acetate infiltration rate. If Rb1 was given before the high-fat diet, the above-mentioned effects of the high-fat diet could be reversed, but whether through the adrenal The role of corticosteroid secretion remains to be further studied. Experiments have proved that red ginseng powder can reduce blood total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids in hyperlipidemia rats fed with high-cholesterol food; increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduce platelet Adhesive. It is suggested that ginseng can not only inhibit the occurrence of hypercholesterolemia, but also prevent the formation of atherosclerosis.

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